This article examines some issues of the philosophical idea of liberalism from a scientific and theoretical position. In particular, an analysis of the opinions and views of famous European philosophers, including I. Bentham, J. Mill, B. Constant, A. Tocqueville, W. Humboldt, A. Stein, was carried out. It is noted that the fundamental principles of government in many countries of the Western world, including the United States, are based on the scientific ideas of liberalism. At the same time, the author comes to the conclusion that today, the ideas of liberalism are going through a difficult period and require deep scientific, socio-political, and cultural understanding from the standpoint of upholding individual rights and freedoms in modern democratic states.